Forisk Forecast Scorecard: 2012 versus Actuals

27 03 2013

This is the fourth in a series related to Forisk’s 2013 forecast of softwood stumpage prices in the United States.

How did Forisk’s Forecast perform in 2012?  For pine stumpage prices in the U.S. South, the Forisk Forecast was within 2% regionally across all products.  Analyses of eleven state-by-state forecasts relative to Timber Mart-South shows that Forisk was, on average, $0.21 per ton lower than the actual pine sawtimber prices and $0.33 per ton higher than the actual pine chip-n-saw prices.  For pine pulpwood, Forisk’s estimates for eleven state-level prices for 2012 had, on average, $0.00 per ton difference from the actuals, with seven states realizing slightly higher prices than forecasted by Forisk and four states realizing lower prices than forecasted by Forisk.

20130327 Forisk Forecast Scorecard

For delivered softwood prices in the Pacific Northwest relative to those reported by Wood Resources International and the Oregon Department of Forestry, the Forisk Forecast was within 1% for three out of four state-product forecasts for 2012, and within 2% for the fourth state-product. Across categories in Oregon and Washington, Forisk underestimated the actuals for 2012 by, on average, $4.41 per MBF or 0.8%.

To learn more about the 2013 Forisk Forecast or Forisk’s market-specific stumpage forecasts tailored to individual wood-using facilities or timberland ownerships, contact Brooks Mendell at bmendell@forisk.com, 770.725.8447. 

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2013 US Timberland Ownership: Descriptive Statistics

21 03 2013

According to Forisk tracking of timberland ownership in the United States, 117 firms currently own or manage in excess of 100,000 acres of timberland. These firms feature the following descriptive statistics:

  • As a group, they own/manage 86.2 million acres of timberland.
  • On average, they own/manage 736,589 acres of timberland.
  • The median ownership is 312,000 acres.

Assuming an average per acre value of $1,500, each firm owns or manages on average $1.1 billion in timberland assets.

Analysis of private timberland in the U.S. affirms the concentrated nature of large ownerships.  While U.S. Forest Service research by Brett Butler concludes that 10 million family forest owners account for 264 million acres (35%) of U.S. forestland, Forisk research indicates that the 286 largest owners alone account for 92.1 million acres.  Each of the top ten own or manage in excess of 2 million acres.

The top 10 timberland owners as of January 2013 include:

20130321 Timberland ownership

For detailed data on US timberland ownership and more information on Forisk’s 2013 US Timberland Owner List, click here.





Thomas Jefferson and Timberland Ownership in the United States

15 03 2013

Through executing the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, President Thomas Jefferson proved himself, among other things, the preeminent timberland acquisition professional.  In this bold embrace, he more than doubled the size of the United States by acquiring 820,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi from France for $15 million dollars.  That equals 524.8 million acres at 2.9 cents per acre (or just over 50 cents per acre in today’s dollars).

[Picture an excerpt from Jefferson’s resume:  Experienced negotiator and real estate professional.  Acquired over half a billion acres of fertile soil and natural resources. Includes land in 14 states such as Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Texas, the Dakotas (both) and Wyoming.  Creator of the swivel chair.]

The Louisiana Purchase was opportunistic.  U.S. negotiators wanted to buy New Orleans, but Napoleon needed financing to wage war on England.  So he rejected the New Orleans proposal and countered with a deal to sell all of France’s North American land holdings.  The U.S. team, led by Secretary of State James Madison, took the offer and closed the transaction.  Bada bing, bada boom.

Forisk’s ongoing research of timberland investment vehicles highlights how private timberland owners and ownership have changed over time since the days of powdered wigs.  Today, timberland investment professionals scour the landscape and courthouse documents for the next purchase in Louisiana or in Arkansas or in Texas.  As of 2013, Forisk counts 217 owners that each own and manage 25,000 acres or more for a total of ~91 million acres of private timberlands.  Of these acres, 18% are owned by the four public timber REITs (Plum Creek, Potlatch, Rayonier and Weyerhaeuser).

For detailed data on US timberland ownership and more information on Forisk’s 2013 US Timberland Owner List, click here.





Forest Finance: What is Timber “Depletion”?

10 03 2013

Money does grow on trees.  Unfortunately, it grows in small denominations.  So we care deeply about managing costs and minimizing taxes.  Which brings us to a category of questions I get each tax season:  timber depletion.  What is it?

Depletion, like depreciation and amortization, is a cost recovery method for natural resources.  It comprises the costs we have in the timber we own and harvest.  We subtract depletion from timber stumpage revenues to arrive at taxable income.  (Therefore, we want depletion rates as high as possible!)

There are two general methods for calculating depletion: tax depletion and financial depletion.  Tax depletion is based on the actual cost of the timber, adjusted annually for additions (acquisitions), removals (harvests), annual net growth, and capitalized reforestation costs.  The depletion “rate” for a corporation is capitalized silviculture dollars divided by the merchantable forest inventory

Financial depletion, also called “normalized” depletion, sums all capitalized silviculture expenses plus merchantable timber accounts and divides this by the beginning inventory plus all growth over the rotation.  The idea is that this should represent the initial cost of the timber plus all ongoing capitalized silviculture expenditures (all capitalized costs associated with wood production) and all the wood that is grown.  This approach provides an “average rate” over the rotation rather than a rate that can change drastically over one rotation.  You will find this method in financial reporting by publicly-trade entities. Private entities (S-Corps, LLCs, Partnerships) generally do not keep a set of financial reporting books.

In summary, depletion reduces the taxes we pay on revenues produced from harvesting and marketing timber.  Publicly-traded firms generally report both tax depletion and financial depletion.  At the end of the day, the objective is to MINIMIZE taxes paid within IRS guidelines….